Islamic Practical Laws: Wuzu and Ghusl

Islamic Practical Laws: Wuzu and Ghusl
Wuzu is the cause for purification and is a desirable action in all conditions. One of the occasions on which wuzu becomes obligatory is Namaz.
In ablutions, it is essential that, after niyyat, one adheres to its proper sequence. That is, he must first wash the face, then the right hand followed by the left hand. After that, he should do masah (i.e. wiping of front portion of head and the upper portion of the feet).
  1. Lengthwise, it is obligatory to wash the face from the hairline at the top of the forehead, down to the chin. Breadth-wise, one must wash the area of the face covered by stretching the thumb and middle finger.
  2. Then, one must wash the right hand from the elbow up to the fingertips. One must wash from the elbow with the downward motion and should ensure each and every part of the hand is moistened from the elbow to the fingertips, both on the upper as well as the lower side.
After washing the right hand, the left hand must be washed likewise.
  1. Then one must perform the masah, by wiping the front portion of the head with the moisture from the water of the wuzu.
  2. It is not necessary that the masah should be on the scalp i.e. skin of head, it can also be done on the hair of the front portion. If the hair is long, then in this condition, he should do masah on the roots of hair or he should part the hair and do masah on the scalp.
  3. After the masah of the head, with the moisture remaining in the hand, one must do masah of the outward portion of the feet from the tip of the toes to the ankles with the palms. It is preferable that it should be wiped right up to the joint.
  4. Performing wuzu with usurped water or with water about which it is not known whether or not its owner is agreeable for it to be used, is unlawful and void.
  5. Performing wuzu with the water of the pools of madrasas, inns, hotels, etc. by persons who are not staying there is valid in case other persons who are not staying there also usually perform wuzu with that water.
  6. If a place on the body other than the limbs on which wuzu is performed is impure, the wuzu is in order. But to perform namaz, it is necessary to make that place paak.
  7. If there is so much gap between the acts of wuzu that when the person wishes to wash or wipe a place, the wetness of the place already washed or wiped by him has dried up, his wuzu will be void.
  8. It is unlawful to touch the words of Holy Quran with any part of one’s body without performing wuzu – however, there is no harm in touching, its translation in any language without performing wuzu.
  9. One should not touch without wuzu, the names of Allah, regardless of the language in which they may have been written.
  10. If a person performs wuzu or ghusl before the time for prayers in order to be in a state of purity, his wuzu/ghusl is in order.
  11. Wuzu becomes void and invalid on account of the following things:
    • passing urine or stool or gas
    • sleep on account of which one’s eyes do not see and ears do not hear
    • actions on account of which, a person loses his senses, e.g. insanity, intoxication, unconsciousness. And all those actions for which ghusl becomes obligatory; like janaabat, menses (Istehaza), etc.
  12. If there is an open wound, or a fractured bone, on which wuzu has to be performed, and the use of water is not harmful, one should perform wuzu in the usual manner. If the wound or fractured bone has been dressed, and is on the part of the body where water for wuzu is to come in contact, then one can perform Wuzu-e-Jabira, if reopening the dressing and pouring water on the wound is harmful. Wuzu-e-Jabira means to place a pure piece of cloth on the wound and draw a wet hand on the cloth. However, the person must first wash the portion adjacent to the wound in the usual manner.
OBLIGATORY BATHS (GHUSL)
  1. There are seven occasions when ghusl becomes obligatory. Of these, four are for both, men as well as women viz.
    • Ghusl-e-Janaabat,
    • ghusl to fulfill a vow (nazr)
    • ghusl for the corpse (mayyat)
    • ghusl for the person who touches the corpse (mas-e-mayyat).
The remaining 3 kinds of ghusl are only for women.
    • Ghusl-e-Hayz
    • Ghusl-e-Nifaas
    • Ghusl-e-Istehaazaa
  1. A person becomes unclean (mujnib) due to 2 reasons:
    • Sexual intercourse
    • Discharge of semen in a state of sleep or otherwise.
  2. The following five things are unlawful for an unclean person (mujnib):
    • To touch with any part of one’s body the writing of the Holy Quran, names of Almighty Allah, Prophets and Imams (a.s.)
    • Entering Masjidul Haraam (Khaana-e-Ka’ba) and Masjidun Nabi (in Medina) although it may simply be entering from one gate and exiting from the other.
    • To stay in all other mosques and the shrines of the Holy Imams (a.s.). However, there is no harm if a person simply enters through one gate and goes out of another.
    • To go and place something in the masjid.
    • To recite verses of the Holy Quran which make prostration obligatory – viz. (i) 32:15, (ii) 41:38, (iii) 53:63, (iv) 96:19.
  3. Ghusl-e-Janaabat by itself is recommended (mustahhab), but becomes obligatory (wajib) for praying namaz or other acts of worship where cleanliness (tahaarat) is a condition.
  4. If one performs Ghusl-e-Janaabat, then there is no need to perform wuzu for offering prayers (namaz).
  5. The period of menses is from 3 days up to 10 days.
  6. During menstruation, a woman should abandon namaz as well as fasting. After she has become pure, it is not wajib for her to offer the namaz lapsed during the period of menses. However she should observe the obligatory fasts missed by her during this period. All those acts, which are unlawful for a mujnib, are unlawful for a haaizah. Having intercourse during menses is unlawful
  7. Divorce during menses is not valid.
  8. After post-menses purity, it is obligatory for her to perform ghusl for namaz and other acts of worship that should be performed with wuzu, ghusl or tayammum.
  9. The initial discharge of blood from the body of a woman, on the delivery of the child, is termed as Nifaas. It is possible that the blood of Nifaas is not discharged for more than a moment, but it doesn’t exceed 10 days. During the period of Nifaas, the order (ahkaam) for women is the same as during Haiz.
  10. If a person (man or woman) brings any part of his/her body in contact with, or touches, the corpse, which has become cold, and has not yet been bathed, then Ghusl-e-Mas-e-Mayyat becomes obligatory on him/her for all acts of worship where cleanliness is a condition
  11. Ghusl-e-Mase Mayyat becomes obligatory even on account of touching the corpse of a dead child or even a stillborn child, who has completed four months.
METHOD OF PERFORMING GHUSL
  1. There are two methods of performing Ghusl,
    • Sequence bath (Ghusl-e-Tartibi),
    • Immersion bath (Ghusl-e-Irtemaasi).
GHUSL-E-TARTIBI
After making intention a person should first wash his head and neck, then wash his right side of the body and then the left side. He should be sure that his body has been washed entirely. While washing one side he should also include some portion of the other side with it.
GHUSL-E-IRTEMASI
It is necessary that the entire body should be suspended in water even if it is for a moment. In case a person dives in water with the intention of Ghusl-e-Irtemaasi and his feet touches the ground, then it is obligatory upon him to lift his feet momentarily.
  1. While performing Ghusl it is necessary that the entire body is clean and pure of najasat.
    If while performing ghusl a part of body, however small it may be, remains unwashed then the ghusl is batil (invalid). But it is not obligatory to wash the inside of the nose or ears and other places, which are reckoned to be the interior of the body.
  2. Performing Ghusl with usurped water or at an usurped placed makes the ghusl (baatil) void. If a person uses the public bath with the intention of deferring payment to its owner or to avoid paying the charges completely or to pay the charges from money acquired illegally, then his ghusl will be void.
  3. If a person has to perform more than one obligatory (wajib) ghusl, then he can perform one ghusl with multiple intentions (Niyyat). 

The A’maal of Shab-e-Qadr

Imam Ali ibne Abi Talib (a.s.)
born inside Kaaba (kaba) on 13 Rajab and martyred in Masjid e Kufa
on 21 ramzan

The A’maal of Shab-e-Qadr
(19th, 21st, and 23rd of Ramazan)

Shab-e-Qadr is the night which is the best night among the nights of the whole year. 
The “A’maal” (religious performance) of this night are better than the A’maal of 1000 months.
In this night the divine annual decree is passed. The angels and Rooh (A highly dignified Angel) descend on earth, this night. These call on the Imam of the time, and what is ordained (by Allah) for everybody is presented before the Imam.

The A’maal of Shab-e-Qadr are of two kinds. Some are common to all the three nights. Others are for particular nights. The common A’maals are:

1) To take a bath. Allama Majlisi says, “It is better to take a bath befor sunset so that the night prayers may be performed after one’s bath.”
 
2) To offer two Rakats Namaz. In every Rakat recite Sura-al-Hamd. (Sura Fateha) and Sura-al-Tauhid (Sura Ikhlas) seven times and after finishing the prayer recite: 70 times
“Astagferullaaha wa atoobo elaihe,”
i.e. “I repent for my sins and seek pardon from God.”
 
3) The Quran should be opened and placed in front. Then one should recite,
“Alaahumma inni asaloka be kitaabekal munzale wa maa feeh, wa feehismokal akbaro wa asmaakal husnaa. wa maa yokhaafo wa Yurjaa an taj-alani min otaqaaeka minan-Naar,”
i.e. “O Allah treat me as one of those who have obtained deliverance from hell. in the name of this holy Book sent by Thee, whatever there be in the Book, including Isme-e-A’azam and Azmaa-e-Husnaa, and the things to be dreaded, the things that may be expected and desired, like blessings of paradise. Do forgive me through the grace of this book.”
(After this he may beg from Allah whatever be wants).
 
4) He should place the Holy Quran on his head and say,
“Allaahumma be haqqe haazal Quran we be haqqe man arsaltahoo beh, wa be haqqe kulle momenin madahtahoo feeh, we be haqqeka alaihim fa-laa ahada a’arafo be haqqeka mink”,
i.e., “O Allah! I appeal to Thee in the name of this Quran and the Rooh that was sent along with it, and in the name of the Momin (believer) whose praise is contained in this Book and Thy obligation that is on them. No one else recognises the right and truth more that Thee,”
 
(After this he should repeat 10 times each):-
 
Beke ya Allaaho
Be Muhammadin
Be Alliyin
Be Faatema
Bil Hasane
Bil Husaine
Be Ali-ibnil Husain
Be Muhammad ibne Aliyin
Be Ja’far ibne Muhammadin
Be Moosabne Ja’farin
Be Ali-ibne Moosa
Be Muhammad ibne Aliyin
Be Ali-Ibe Muhammadin
Bil Hasan ibne aliyin
Bil Hujjate-il-Qa’eeme
 
(Then he may beg from Allah whatever he wants).
(5a) To recite the Ziarat of Imam Husain(A.S.), Ziarat-e-Waris. According to Hadis, during Shab-e-Qadr an angel proclaims from the Arsh (Throne) on the Seventh sky, “Allah the benevolent forgives him, whosoever performs the Ziarat of Imam-e-Husain”.
 
(5b) To recite Du’a Jaushan-e-Saghir.
 
6) One should keep oneself awake throughout these three nights.
The vigil during these nights carries great Sawab (heavenly reward).
 
7) To offer 100 Rakats of Namaz. It has been highly recommended to recite after Sura Fateha
(Sura-al-Hamd)
10 times Sura Ikhlas (Qul Howallah).
 
8) “Astagferullaah Rabbi wa atoobo elaihe” 100 times
(i.e., “I repent for my sins and I seek pardon from God who is my Sustainer”).
 
9) “Allaahummal’an qatalatal Ameerul Momeneen” 100 times (i.e., “O Allah! Thy contempt be upon the assassin of Ameerul Mimeneen Ali ibne Abi Talib”).
 
10) To recite the following Suras from the Holy Quran:
ANKABOOT (The Spider) 29th Sura.
ROOM (the Roman Empire) 30th Sura.
DUKHAN (Smoke or Mist) 44th Sura.
 
11)This du’a may be recited:-
 
I have passed the evening as a very humble servant of Thee. I have no control over my gains and losses. I cannot remove any evil from myself. I bear testimony against myself. I admit my weakness and inability to manage my affairs. Bestow Thy blessings on Muhammad (S.A.W) and his Aal (A.S.). Whatever Thou hast promised, fulfil. Verily! I am Thy humble, weak and destitute servant. O Allah! let me not forget the blessings that Thou hast bestowed on me and let me not be forgetful of Thy kindness. Do not deny me the acceptance of my prayer, though it may be delayed, whether it pertains to sorrow or happiness, peace and tranquillity or hardship and vicissitudes or to invocation for blessings. Thou hearest and acceptest invocations in every condition.

The Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) when asked what should one beg of Allah during these nights, said: “Ask for your safety (here and in the hereafter).”

O Allah! Whatever is decreed and ordained by Thee during Laila tul Qadr (Night of Power) is final and of wisdom. Whatever changes were effected in the night in previous decrees could not be changed by anybody else. Do let me be one of those whose Haj is acceptable, whose efforts are rewarded, whose sins have been pardoned and whose errors have been forgiven. Add to the span of my life increase my livelihood and fulfil my righteous desires.
Du’a for the 19th night:
O One, who was before everything and then brought everything into existence. Thou wilt remain whilst all else will be destroyed. O the One, sole and solitary exception whom there is none else in the high heavens or low earths or above and below them or in between them who is worth worshipping. Only Thou art the deity and none else deserves to be worshipped. To Thee alone is due the praise which cannot be offered to anyone but Thee. Therefore bestow peace and blessings on Muhammad (S.A.W.) and Aal-e-Muhammad (A.S.) such as nobody else has the power to bestow.
Du’a for the 21st Night:

O One who turns day into night and night into day. O One, who brings out the living from the dead and the dead from the living. O one, who gives sustenance to whomsoever and whatsoever He likes. O Allah! O Merciful! O Allah! O Allah! O Allah! The best names are for Thee alone, The best attributes are for Thee. The grandeur and the glory are for Thee. I beg of Thee to bless Muhammad (S.A.W.) and his Aal (A.S.). Write down my name in this night with the fortunate ones. Let my soul be in the company of the martyrs. Let my good acts be reckoned as “lliyeen” (exalted). Let my sins be condoned. Bestow on me that belief by virtue of which Thou may be nearest to my heart, that “Iman” which may remove all doubts from my mind. Let me be satisfied with whatever Thou hast ordained for me. Let me have the virtues of this world and of the hereafter. Save me from the fire of hell.Let me always attend to my duty to praise Thee and to thank Thee, and let me present myself in Thy court. Do bestow the same “taufique” (guidance) to me which Thou hast bestowed upon Muhammad (S.A.W.) and his Aal (A.S.).
Du’a for 23 rd night:

O Lord of Lailatul Qadr! (Night of Power). Who has made it better than a thousand months! O the Lord of the day and the night and the mountains and oceans, the Lord of light and darkness! O the Lord of the earth and the skies! O the Creator! O the designer! O the Compassionate! O One who favours! O Allah, who maintains everything! O Allah! O the most benevolent! O Allah! O the creator of new things! O Allah! O Allah! O Allah! The best names are for Thee alone. Thou hast control over all virtues. I ask Thee to send blessings on Muhammed (S.A.W.) and his Aal (A.S.). 
Write my name, in this night of Qadr, among the names of the fortunate. Let my soul keep the company of the martyrs. Let my good deeds be reckoned with “Illiyeen” (those exalted). Forgive my sins. Bestow on me such belief that Thou may be nearest to my heart. Give me such an understanding that all the doubts may be removed. Let me be contented with what has been ordained for me. Let me have goodness and virtues in this world and in the next. Save me from the glowing fire of hell. Encourage me to remember Thee with devotion and pleasure and to be penitent. Bless me with virtues that Thou hast bestowed on Muhammads (S.A.W.) and his Aal (A.S.).
 
 



TEAM 110



 

Looking at Parent

Looking at Parent


The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him and his family) said: “Every righteous child who casts a look of mercy and affection upon his parents shall be granted, for every look of his, rewards equivalent to that of an accepted Hajj.” Those around the Prophet questioned: “O’ Prophet of Allah! Even if he were to look at them a hundred times a day?” The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him and his family) replied: “Indeed! Allah is the Greatest and Most Kind.”

(Biharul Anwar, Volume 74, Page 73)

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him and his family) said: “One who desires a long life and an increase in livelihood should exhibit goodness towards his parents and establish bonds of kinship (with his relatives).”

(Kanzul `Ummal, Volume 16, Page 475)

Benefits of Kindness to Parents:

Hanan Ibn Sudair narrates: “We were in the presence of Imam as-Sadiq (peace be upon him) and amidst us was Muyassir. During the discussion, the topic of silah rahim (establishing bonds of kinship with one’s relatives) came to the fore, whereupon] the Imam (peace be upon him), [addressing Muyassir], said: ‘O’ Muyassir! On several occasions, your end had drawn near, but on each occasion, Allah delayed your death due to your acts of silah rahim with your relatives. If you desire to have your life-span increased, exhibit goodness and kindness towards your parents.’”

(Biharul Anwar, Volume 74, Page 84)


Evil Parents And Kindness:

Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (peace be upon him) has said: “There are three things which Allah, the Mighty and the Glorious has not permitted anyone to forsake: returning a trust to its owner, irrespective of whether he is a good person or an evil one; fulfilling one’s promises and covenants, irrespective of whether it has been made to a good person or an evil one; being good and kind towards one’s parents, irrespective of whether they are good or evil.”

(Biharul Anwar, Volume 74, Page 56)

Visiting the Graves of Parents:

It has been narrated that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him and his family) said: “Whoever visits the graves of his parents or one of them every Friday, Allah shall forgive his sins and shall regard him to be of those who had been kind to his parents.”

(Kanzul `Ummal, Volume 16, Page 468)


Forgiveness of Sins:

Imam Zainul `Abidin (peace be upon him) relates: “Once a person approached the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him and his family) and said: ‘O’ Prophet of Allah! I have committed every known evil act. Is there a chance that I may be forgiven?’ The Messenger of Allah asked him: ‘Are any of your parents still alive?’ The man replied: ‘My father.’ He said to him: ‘Go and be good and kind to him.’ When he left, the Messenger of Allah muttered: ‘If only his mother had been alive.’”

(Biharul Anwar, Volume 74, Page 82)

No Entry into Paradise!

Imam as-Sadiq (peace be upon him) has said: “The person who has been disowned by his parents, one who consumes intoxicants and one who does acts of goodness towards others but imposes obligations upon them shall never enter into Paradise.”

(Biharul Anwar, Volume 74, Page 74)


The Imam’s Displeasure:

Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (peace be upon him) relates: “Once my father saw a person and his son walking together. As they walked, the son was leaning against the arm of his father. (This act of the son was so abhorrent and infuriating to my father that) he (peace be upon him) never spoke to him throughout his life.”

(Biharul Anwar, Volume 74, Page 64)

On Behalf of Parents:

Imam as-Sadiq (peace be upon him) had said: “What prevents a person from doing good to his parents – whether alive or dead – by offering prayers, giving charity, performing Hajj on behalf of them, (knowing that) the rewards of these acts are also granted to him, in addition to his parents? Besides, due to his good deeds and prayers (for them), Allah, the Mighty and the Glorious, shall grant him abundant good.”

(Biharul Anwar, Volume 74, Page 46)


Lesson from this topic:

Responsibilities Towards One’s Parents

Imam as-Sadiq (peace be upon him) has said (in regards to one’s parents): “Do not cast your gaze upon them except with love and compassion; do not raise your voice above theirs; do not raise your hands above theirs; do not walk ahead of them.”

(Biharul Anwar, Volume 74, Page 79)

Health tips given by Imam Ali Al-Reza (as)


Health tips given by Imam Ali Al-Reza (as)

 

1- Dried grapes regulate the bile, remove excess phlegm from the body, strengthen the sinews, take away melancholic tendencies from the mind and purify the soul. 


2- Pomegranate is a fruit of paradise. There is one seed from Paradise in every pomegranate growing on the earth. 


3- Honey is nature’s best medicine. Whenever someone offers you honey as present, accept it. 

4- The oil of violet should be used as hair oil because it has a cooling effect during summer and warm during winter. 

5- Satan does not visit for forty days a person who applies olive oil to his head or uses it in food. 

6- Mother’s milk is the best food for an infant. 

7- Recitation of Quran and taking honey with milk sharpens the memory.



8- Use of meat as a food improves health and builds up power of resistance against diseases. 

9- Starting meal with salt prevents seventy types of ailments, one of which is leprosy. 

10- A gluttonous person will starve on the day of resurrection. 

11- Masur (a kind of beans, lentils) was the favorite food of seventy thousands prophets. It moderates the temperament and augments the activity of tear glands. 

12- The person who refrains from meat for forty days will become ill-tempered. 

13- Food should be taken when it is at moderate temperature. 

14- Start eating from the sides of the plate and not from the middle. 

15- For longevity one should eat nourishing food, wear comfortable shoes and try to remain free from debts. 

16- To avoid cold (flu) of the winter always open the door first for a few moments before leaving your house, let the outside air in, then step outside. To avoid the cold of the summer always open the door first before entering the house, let the inside air out and then step inside.


Effects of Music on the Nervous System

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Effects of Music on the Nervous System


 

The biologists and the life scientists have defined two types of nerves. They are the principal nerves and the arterial nerves. The principal nerves stretch from the neck to all vital organs. The arterial nerves spread from the main nerves to all parts of the body. The secondary nerves are connected to outward parts of the body and convey the messages to the brain. When the veins enlarge the blood pressures decreases. Due to the shrivelling of blood vessels, the blood pressure increases. When the blood pressure varies at different parts of the body it affects the health.

When the secondary nerves work they produce heat whereas the functioning of the central nerves produces the opposite effect. That is due to these nerves, feelings of sloth, sleep, thoughtlessness, forgetfulness, grief and sorrow, fainting, unconsciousness and even death occurs. Obviously, when music could affect the various nerves, it would give rise to various maladies. Mental diseases as well as physical ailments will be caused. The mental effect would destroy his reasoning capacity. It is for this reason that one who listens to music is unable to perform the work that could be accomplished by a sane person.

Music creates vibration in the body and this is conveyed to all the parts of the body through the nervous system. As a result of it, indigestion occurs. Music affects the heart in such a way that the heartbeats becomes irregular. The blood pressure goes awry. All such ailments make a person permanently ill. 

Consequently, even the modern medical science, in spite of its astonishing progress, fails in such a situation. Sometimes, the music is so intense that the listener loses his sanity. He becomes dumb and various kinds of mental diseases occur. In places, where music is more prevalent, we find that there are more neurotic illnesses. It is for this reason that most of the mental hospitals are to be found in Europe and America

Dr. Adlen writes against music, “Even though it seems pleasant, the effect of music is profound upon the nervous system. Specially, when the temperature is high, the ill-effect of music is more. This is the reason that ill-effects of music are more in the hot areas of
Iran and Saudi Arabia. The American people are so disgusted with the bane of music that they have united to demand from the senate a permanent ban on music. It is a pity that the whole world perceives the evils of music yet is adopting it as entertainment.”

[ (Refer to the booklet; “Tasir Mausiqi bar Asaab” Pg. 3, 6, 10). Extract from the Book ” Greater Sins” by Shaheed Dasgahib ]

A True Incident
An excise officer in Meerut (UP) relates an interesting incident in regard to the effect of music on nervous system. He says:” I was leading a normal life, it was simple and peaceful. 

One of the quality I had, that I never enjoyed music nor it had any effect on me. It so happened, that one day I met with an accident. It was so serious that I had to be operated. The blood was needed and it was arranged easily. The donour was available. After few days, I found a change in my body and temperament. I realised that I was reacting on music. Sometimes through tapping my foot on the rhythms and ofcourse enjoying. This change in my attitude made me think that how this sudden interest in music has developed. What is the reason. I doubted that may it be through the transfusion of the blood. I was curious to know. I consulted my doctor and insisted that he finds out who was the blood donour. It was easier to the doctor. He informed me that the blood was donated by a dancer. From that day I was convinced that the music does affect the nervous system.



Imam al-Baqir(A.S.) Argues Muslims to Seek Knowledge

O my masters! O the sons (descendants) of the the Messenger of Allah!
I am your servant, the son of your bondwoman, I yield to you in submission,
I stand in awe of the sublimeness of your authority, I am fully aware of your rights,…


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Imam al-Baqir(A.S.) Argues Muslims to Seek Knowledge



Ima`m Abu` Ja’far (al-Ba`qir), peace be on him, talked very much about the importance of knowledge. He urged Moslems to seek knowledge, for it is the first pillar on which the lives of nations and peoples depend. He, peace be on him, praised the virtue of scholars, for they are the source of culture and guidance for the community. The following are some of what has been reported on his authority in this respect:



1. The Virtue of Knowledge

Ima`m Abu` Ja’far (al-Ba`qir), peace be on him, glorified knowledge. He summoned Moslems to cling to it. He urged them to seek it. He lauded those who sought it. 

He said: “Learn, for learning is protection. Seeking knowledge is worship, studying it is glorification (of Allah), looking for it is jihad, teaching it (to others) is alms, and giving it to those who are appropriate for it is proximity (to Allah). 

Knowledge is the signpost of the garden. It is an intimate in lonesomeness, a companion in exile, a friend in estrangement, a guide to ease, a help against affliction, adornment with friends, and a weapon against enemies. By it Allah promotes some people to make them Ima`ms (leaders) for good. So, (people) follow their example and report their works. All wet and dry things, the whales and vermin of the see, and the animals and livestock of the land ask (Allah) to bless them.(Ibn Hamadun, al-Tadhkira, p. 26)

No words glorify knowledge, praise scholars, and embrace its fruits and advantages as these golden words do. Thus, they are worthy of writing in the institutes and universities of knowledge.



2. The Virtue of the Scholar

Ima`m al-Ba`qir, peace be on him, lauded the virtue of the scholar. He explained his social rank, and the plentiful reward which Allah has prepared for him. The following are some of the sayings which have been reported on his authority: 

A. He, peace be on him, said: “The scholar of whose knowledge (people) make use is better than seventy thousand worshipers.
( Jami’ Bayan al-Ilm wa Fadlah, vol. 1, p. 32)

B. He, peace be on him, said: “Whoever teaches a door of guidance, will have the same reward of those who put it into practice. Nothing of the rewards of those (who put guidance into practice) will be decreased. Whoever teaches a door of error, will have the same burdens of those who put in into effect. Nothing of the burdens of those (who put error into effect) will be decreased.


(Usul al-Kafi, vol. 1, p. 34)

C. He, peace be on him, said: “The servant who goes early in the morning to seek knowledge goes into mercy thoroughly.

(Nasikh al-Tawarikh, vol. 2, p. 205)



3. Associating with Scholars and the Pious

Ima`m al-Ba`qir, peace be on him, urged Moslems to associate with scholars and the pious to make use of their guidance and behavior. He, peace be on him, said: “Indeed association with him whom I trust is more reliable with me than a year’s work.
( Usul al-Kafi, vol. 1, p. 34)



4. Discussing Knowledge

Ima`m al-Ba`qir, peace be on him, summoned Moslems to discuss knowledge with each other, for that opens new doors to knowledge and science. He, peace be on him, said: “Discussing knowledge is studying, and studying is a good prayer.
( Usul al-Kafi, vol. 1, p. 41)



5. Rules for the Student

Ima`m al-Ba`qir, peace be on him, suggested wonderful rules for the student. He, peace be on him, said: “When you sit with a scholar, then listen to him more than speaking to him. Learn good listening as you learn good speech. Do not interrupt (the scholar) while he is busy talking.
(Nasikh al-Tawarikh, vol. 2, p. 205)



6. Proclaiming Knowledge

Ima`m al-Ba`qir, peace be on him, summoned scholars to proclaim and spread knowledge. So, no one will be ignorant. He, peace be on him, said: “The zakat (alms) of knowledge is that you teach it to the servants of Allah.
( Usul al-Kafi, vol. 1, p. 41)

He, peace be on him, also said: “Whoever learns knowledge will have the same reward of him who teaches it, and will be better than him. Learn knowledge from scholars. Then teach it to your brothers as the scholars have taught it to you.(Nasikh al-Tawarikh, vol. 2, p. 205)



7. The Ima`m urged Moslems to learn

Ima`m al-Ba`qir, peace be on him, urged Moslems to learn (knowledge) and to ask scholars about it. He, peace be on him, said: “Knowledge is a treasure and the key is the question. Then, may Allah have mercy on you, ask (scholars). Indeed four persons will be rewarded out of knowledge: the questioner, the speaker, the listener, and the one who loves them.
(Al-Khisal, p. 223)



8. Understanding the Religion

Ima`m al-Ba`qir, peace be on him, summoned Moslems to understand deeply the religion and to know the lawful and the unlawful. He, peace be on him, said: “All perfection is in understanding deeply the religion, patience towards misfortune, and taking livelihood into account.
(. Usul al-Kafi, vol. 1, p. 32) 

Surely, understanding the religion deeply maintains man’s balance and behavior. It prevents man from committing ugly things. In the mean time it prevents him from deviating from the religion.


9. Putting Knowledge into effect

Ima`m al-Ba`qir, peace be on him, urged scholars to put their knowledge into practice. He, peace be on him, said: “When you hear knowledge, then put it into effect. Let your hearts be wide. For the person with the heart that does not encompass his abundant knowledge makes Satan powerful over him. If Satan disputed with you, then dispute with him through what you know. 

Surely, the deception of Satan is weak.”Ibn Abu` Layla asked him: “What is the thing which we know?”So, he, peace be on him, replied: “Dispute with Satan through the manifest strength of Allah, the Great and Almighty.

10. Action coupled with knowing Allah is accepted

Knowing Allah is a condition in accepting an act. So, the one who acts and does not know Allah nor does he know the duty which he performs, then his action is useless. Ima`m al-Ba`qir, peace be on him, said: “No act is accepted except through knowing (Allah). No knowledge (of Allah) is accepted except through an act. Whoever knows (Allah) his knowledge leads him to the act. He who does not know (Allah), his action is invalid.
(Tuhaf al-‘Uqul, p. 294)



11. The Ima`m dispraised Boasting of Seeking Knowledge.

Ima`m Abu` Ja’far (al-Ba`qir), peace be on him, dispraised those who boasted of seeking knowledge. He urged the scholars to do their best to seek nearness to Allah and to wish for the hereafter through seeking knowledge. He, peace be on him, said: “He who seeks knowledge to vie with the scholars for glory or to dispute with the foolish or to know the prominent figures, then he shall occupy his place in the Fire. Indeed leadership is inappropriate for anyone except those who are appropriate for it.
(Usul al-Kafi, vol. 1, p. 47)

Surely, these corrupt ambitions invalidate the reward which Allah has prepared for the religious scholar, who is the propagator of Allah in the earth. Therefore, if the religious scholar wants success in this world and happiness in the next world, then he should seek knowledge to please Allah.



12. Giving Religious Opinions without Knowledge

Several traditions on giving religious opinions without knowledge were reported on the authority of Ima`m Abu` Ja’far (al-Ba`qir), peace be on him, for such opinions mislead people. The following are some of them: 

A. Ima`m al-Ba`qir, peace be on him, said: “Whoever gives people religious opinions without having knowledge and guidance, the angels of the Merciful (Allah) and the angels of torment will curse him, and he will shoulder the sins of those who put his religious opinions into effect.

(Usul al-Kafi, vol. 1, p. 42)

B. He, peace be on him, said: “Say what you know. When you do not know, say: Allah knows best. If the person singles out a verse from the Koran (to misinterpret it), he falls down as far as the sky is from the earth.
(Usul al-Kafi, vol. 1, p. 42) 

C. Zara`ra asked Ima`m Abu` Ja’far (al-Ba`qir), peace be on him: “What is Allah’s right against the servants?”The Ima`m, peace be on him, replied: “They should say what they know and refrain from saying what they do not know.

(Usul al-Kafi, vol. 1, p. 42)


D. He, peace be on him, said: “If the scholar is asked about a certain thing and he does not know that thing, he should say: Allah knows more. Other than the scholar has no right to say that.

(Tuhaf al-‘Uqul, p. 297)



13. The Qualities of the Scholar

In many of his traditions, Ima`m Abu` Ja’far (al-Ba`qir), peace be on him, talked about the qualities of scholars. The following are some of them: 

A. He, peace be on him, said: “The servant who envies those who are superior to him and scorns those who are inferior to him is not a scholar.
(Tuhaf al-‘Uqul, p. 294)

Indeed the servant is a scholar when his soul is free from envy, which is among the greatest psychological catastrophes. It is envy that throws people into the tribulation, for it brings about misfortunes. However, the servant is not a scholar when he scorns those who are inferior to him. 

This means that he does not make use of knowledge, which summons him to respect people and treat them with high morals. Surely, the Prophet, may Allah bless him, was sent to complete high moral standards. So, when the scholar follows bad manners, he deviates from the laws and morals of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family. 

B. He, peace be on him, said: “The true jurist is he who renounces this world, wishes for the hereafter, and cleaves to the sunna (practices) of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family.
( Usul al-Kafi, vol. 1, p. 70)

C. He, peace be on him, said: “If you see the scholar love the rich, then he loves (the life in) the world. If you see him associate with the Sultan (ruler) without a necessity, then he is a thief.
(Abi Zahra, al-Imam al-Sadiq, p. 24)

When the scholar loves the rich, he wishes for their properties and to make use of them. This is not among the morals of the scholars whom Allah has commanded to wish for what He has, not for what the others have. As for association with the Sultan without a necessity, it proves that the scholar is not true and that he is a thief, as the Ima`m said. Mahmu`d al-Warraq satirized the religious scholars who made friends with the Sultan, saying: 

They rode their horses and went in groups to the Caliph’s house. 

They arrived there in the early morning and stayed till evening to obtain high ranks. 

When they got the nice condition they requested, 

(When) the Caliph became glad with what the leaf contained, 

(When) they harmed those who were inferior to them through oppression and violent conduct, 

they broke the Caliph’s promise through the 

oppression of fearful ways. 

They sold truthfulness for treason and bought carrion for safety. 

They hoard fat and weakened those absurd deposits. 

The graves of the people became narrow. And their high palaces became wide. 

From the possessors of politeness,knowledge, and wise opinions 

to the analogy of Abu` Hanifa are in agreement on the gathering of the tradition. 

When the fascinating world charms a person, the person does not make use of knowledge.
( Jami’ Bayan al-Ilm wa Fadla, vol. 1, p. 201)

He forgets Allah and takes shelter in the world through weak means. 

Abu` al-‘Atahiya also satirized them: 

They looked for the vanities of the world 

and forgot the grandson of the Prophet.
( Jami’ Bayan al-Ilm wa Fadla, vol. 1, p. 201)

With this we end our talk about the traditions reported on the authority of the Ima`m, peace be on him. They concern the virtue of knowledge. They praise scholars. Moreover, they are about the high moral standards which scholars should follow to be an example to the community.